- About Us
- Base Oil
- Cooking Oil
- Contact Us
Introduction to Base Oil
Base Oil Benzene International Singapore >> Video
UNDERSTANDING BASE OIL
Lubricants have been around since ancient times. The Petroleum-based Lubricants business started in mid 1800’s. The initial processing was limited to separation by boiling point. Most people know the key driver of the production for lubricants are Base Oils.
Mineral Base Oil
Modern mineral base oils are the result of a long and complex distillation and refining processes. The feedstock used is crude oil. This substance is not of uniform quality but consists of several thousands of hydrocarbon compounds in which the elements carbon and hydrogen are present in all molecules and, in part, are bound to other elements.
The hydrocarbons can be divided into three main groups: paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic. Paraffinic hydrocarbons can be further divided into two subgroups: normal paraffinic and iso- paraffinic.
Paraffinic hydrocarbons are the best lubricants. The distillation process in the refinery separates the hydrocarbons contained in the crude into cuts based on the molecule size.
Furthermore, as many unwanted substances as possible are removed in the process, such as sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, paraffin wax, etc. In other words the mineral oil production process is physical cleaning and the end product is so-called paraffinic base oil.
Most of the hydrocarbons in the base oil are paraffinic, but it also contains naphthenic and aromatic molecules. When the finished lubricant, such as motor oil, is made of these, several additive compounds are used to improve the base oil properties.
The final outcome can also be so-called naphthenic base oil, where most of the hydrocarbons are naphthenic. Their cold properties are excellent.
TYPICAL PROPERTIES EACH BASE OIL GROUPS
Groups of Base oils
There are five specific categories of base oils. These categories define the type of base stock the oil is formulated from. The categories are as follows..
Group I - Group 1 base oils are the least refined of all the groups. They are usually a mix of different hydrocarbon chains with little or no uniformity. While some automotive oils on the market use Group I stocks, they are generally used in less demanding applications.
Group I base stocks contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group II base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.
Group III - Group III base oils are subjected to the highest level of mineral oil refining of the base oil groups. Although they are not chemically engineered, they offer good performance in a wide range of attributes as well as good molecular uniformity and stability. They are commonly mixed with additives and marketed as synthetic or semi-synthetic products. Group III base oils have become more common in America in the last decade.
Group V - Group V base stocks include all other base stocks not included in Group I, II, III, and IV. Group V base oils are used primarily in the creation of oil additives. Esters and polyolesters are both common Group V base oils used in the formulation of oil additives. Group V oils are generally not used as base oils themselves, but add beneficial properties to other base oils.
• Feedstock is separated into distillates and vacuum gas oils
GROUP I BASE OIL
Solvent Freezing : Group 1 base oils are the least refined of all the groups. They are usually a mix of different hydrocarbon chains with little or no uniformity. While some automotive oils on the market use Group I stocks, they are generally used in less demanding applications.
Grades - SN 150, SN500