Base Oil Division

Base Oil, both Virgin & Re-Refined ( Recycled ) grades of SN150, SN300, SN500 are being exported in Flexitanks..

Base Oil Division

Base stocks are called by several names: Neutrals (SN100, SN150, 6SN650,) &Bright Stocks, Grades (SAE 5, 10…; ISO 22, 32..).

Base Oil Division

The most common names are for group I (SN: Solvent Neutral), for group II (N: Neutrals) and group III grade names refer to the viscosity (4cst, 6cst, 8cst …).

BASE OIL DIVISION - Group I

 

Introduction to Base Oil

Base oil is the name given to lubrication grade oils initially produced from refining crude oil (mineral base oil) or through chemical synthesis (synthetic base oil). Base oil is typically defined as oil with a boiling point range between 550 and 1050 F, consisting of hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms. This oil can be either paraffinic or napthenic in nature depending on the chemical structure of the molecules.

Base stocks are classified inot various grades including Neutral, Solvent Neutral, Bright Stocks, The most common names are for group I (SN: Solvent Neutral), for group II (N: Neutrals) and group III grade names refer to the viscosity (4cst, 6cst, 8cst …).

Base Oil Benzene International Singapore >> Video

UNDERSTANDING BASE OIL

Base Oils

Lubricants have been around since ancient times. The Petroleum-based Lubricants business started in mid 1800’s. The initial processing was limited to separation by boiling point.  Most people know the key driver of the production for lubricants are Base Oils.

Mineral Base Oil

Modern mineral base oils are the result of a long and complex distillation and refining processes. The feedstock used is crude oil. This substance is not of uniform quality but consists of several thousands of hydrocarbon compounds in which the elements carbon and hydrogen are present in all molecules and, in part, are bound to other elements.

The hydrocarbons can be divided into three main groups: paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic. Paraffinic hydrocarbons can be further divided into two subgroups: normal paraffinic and iso- paraffinic.

Paraffinic hydrocarbons are the best lubricants. The distillation process in the refinery separates the hydrocarbons contained in the crude into cuts based on the molecule size.    

Furthermore, as many unwanted substances as possible are removed in the process, such as sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, paraffin wax, etc. In other words the mineral oil production process is physical cleaning and the end product is so-called paraffinic base oil.

Most of the hydrocarbons in the base oil are paraffinic, but it also contains naphthenic and aromatic molecules. When the finished lubricant, such as motor oil, is made of these, several additive compounds are used to improve the base oil properties.

The final outcome can also be so-called naphthenic base oil, where most of the hydrocarbons are naphthenic. Their cold properties are excellent.

TYPICAL PROPERTIES EACH BASE OIL GROUPS

 GROUP

VISCOSITY INDEX

SATURATES

SULPHUR IN %

DESCRIPTION

I

80-120

< 90%

> 0.03%

Conventional (Solvents)

II

80-120

= 90%

= 0.03%

Requires Hydro-processing

III

>120

= 90% 

= 0.03%

Requires severe Hydro-processing, PolyAlphaOlefins (PAO)

IV

--- 

All other base stocks
not in Group

IV - including other synthetics

 

Groups of Base oils

There are five specific categories of base oils. These categories define the type of base stock the oil is formulated from. The categories are as follows..

PROPERTYS

Group I

Group II

Group III

Ultra 4,6,8

Group IV

Saturates,%

65~85

93~99+

95~99+

99+

99+

Aromatics,%

15~35

<1~7

<1~5

<1

<1

Sulfur, ppm

300~3000

5~300

0~30

<1

n/a

Vis 100°C,cSt

4~32

4~30

4~8

4.0~7.6

4~70

VI

95~105

95~118

123~150

120~135-

125~150

Pour point, ℃℃

-15

-15

-15

22.5~-15

-45


Note that the base oil group category is followed by the manufacturing method and then a description of the oil characteristics for each category.

Group I - Group 1 base oils are the least refined of all the groups. They are usually a mix of different hydrocarbon chains with little or no uniformity. While some automotive oils on the market use Group I stocks, they are generally used in less demanding applications.

Group I base stocks contain less than 90 percent saturates and/or greater than .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.

Group II - Group II base oils are common in mineral based motor oils currently available on the market. They have fair to good performance in lubricating properties such as volatility, oxidative stability and flash/fire points. They have only fair performance in areas such as pour point; cold crank viscosity and extreme pressure wear .

Group II base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03 percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 80 and less than 120.

Group III - Group III base oils are subjected to the highest level of mineral oil refining of the base oil groups. Although they are not chemically engineered, they offer good performance in a wide range of attributes as well as good molecular uniformity and stability. They are commonly mixed with additives and marketed as synthetic or semi-synthetic products. Group III base oils have become more common in America in the last decade.
Group III base stocks contain greater than or equal to 90 percent saturates and less than or equal to .03percent sulfur and have viscosity index greater than or equal to 120.

Group IV - Group IV base stocks are polyalphaolefins (PAO) and  are chemically engineered synthetic base stocks.
Poly Alpha Olefins (PAO's) are a common example of a synthetic base stock. Synthetics, when combined with additives, offer excellent performance over a wide range of lubricating properties. They have very stable chemical compositions and highly uniform molecular chains. Group IV base oils are becoming more common in synthetic and synthetic-blend products for automotive and industrial applications

Group V - Group V base stocks include all other base stocks not included in Group I, II, III, and IV. Group V base oils are used primarily in the creation of oil additives. Esters and polyolesters are both common Group V base oils used in the formulation of oil additives. Group V oils are generally not used as base oils themselves, but add beneficial properties to other base oils.
Note that the additives referred to in the Group V description are not aftermarket type oil additives. The additives referred to be used in the chemical engineering and blending of motor oils and other lubricating oils by the specific oil company that produces the finished product.

Production Flow Chart

•    Feedstock is separated into distillates and vacuum gas oils
•    Vacuum gas oil is sent through the hydro-cracker for conversion
•    To saturate the molecules and remove impurities such as nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen and heavy metals, Hydrogen is introduced.
•    Under extreme temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst, hydro-cracking converts aromatics molecules into saturated Paraffin.
•    This process yields stock with lighter in color since the absence of contaminants.
•    Long waxy paraffin molecules are restructured into shorter ones, so-Paraffin that resist gelling and improve low temperature pump-ability.
•    Hydrogen is introduced again to clean up the remaining and impurities thus enhancing the oxidation and thermal stability of the final product.

GROUP I BASE OIL  

Solvent Freezing : Group 1 base oils are the least refined of all the groups. They are usually a mix of different hydrocarbon chains with little or no uniformity. While some automotive oils on the market use Group I stocks, they are generally used in less demanding applications.

Grades - SN 150, SN500

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TEST

UNITS

METHODS

SN 150

SN 500

Density

@ 15 °C

ASTM-D 4052

-
-

Colour

- Max

ASTM-D 1500

1

2

Flash Point COC

- Min°C

ASTM-D 92

210

227

Flash Point PMCC 

- Min°C

ASTM-D 93

200+

210+

Furfural Content

- Max

PPMM- 1414

5

5

Pour Point

- Max°C

ASTM-D 97

-12

-6

Viscosity @ 40 °C

Cst

ASTM-D 445

28/31

91/101

Viscosity @ 100 °C

Cst

ASTM-D 445

-

-

Viscosity Index

- Min

ASTM-D 2270

95

95

Carbon Residue

- MaxWT %

ASTM-D 189

-

0.1

Sulphur Content

- Max WT%

ASTM-D 4294

0.6

1

Neutralization No

- MaxMG KOH/GM

ASTM-D 664

0.05

0.05

Copper Strip Corrosion

- Max100 °C/3 Hrs

ASTM-D 130

1A

1A

Ash- Max

WT %

ASTM-D 482

0.01

0.01

Appearance 

-

Visual

C&B

C&B